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Austro-Asiatic Numbers

08.03.11 | admin | In Khmer, Vietnamese, Uncategorized

Vietnamese and Khmer are the two well-known languages in the Mon-Khmer language group which is most of the Austro-Asiatic language family, the only national languages in the family.  Languages in this family are mostly in Southeast Asia but are also found in India and Bangladesh.  The map of the haplogroup O2b-M9 may explain why and that the people who spoke these languages originated in South Asia.

This chart from Paul Sidwell shows how closely related any Austro-Asiatic language is from another.  It shows that Vietnamese is pretty far from all other Mon-Khmer languages except those in the Viet-Muong group such as Muong, Ruc, Sach, Thavung.  It’s quite different from Khmer, even though there is a relation.

When we look at the numbers in these languages, we can see that there is still some connection.  The table below from www.zompist.com lists numbers in Austro-Asiatic languages.  Actually, the numbers for Vietnamese are not exactly correct — see #5.

Can you see the similarities between Vietnamese (not Sino-Vietnamese) and Khmer numerals one through five?  Can you guess what the original Proto-Mon-Khmer numerals were?

Austro-Asiatic

Mon-Khmer
Bugan bo 55 bio 31 mtse 31 pau 33 mi 33 pio 33 pou 31 sã 33 s;i 33 mã 31
North
Viet-Muong
Sino-Viet. nhâ’t nhi tam tú’ ngu~ luc thâ’t bát cu|‘u thâp
Proto-Viet-Muong+ *moc *hal *pa *pon *?dâm *khâw *pây *t’am *cin *mïel
Vietnamese môt hai ba bô’n nâm sáu ba|y tám chín mu’ò’i
Saigon mok. hay ba bóng nâm s,áw bây tám cín mï`y
Muong môc5 hal2 ba2 bôn3 tam2 khaw3 baj4 sam3 cin3 mu’o'l1
May (Ruc, Chut) moic hal pa pón dâm ráw pa,^,.)y thám cín mièy
Thavung (Aheu) muut haal paa póon dam phalu? pih sáam cíin sip
Tay Pong (Hung) motj hal? pa pôn dhâm prâu pal sam chin mal’
Arem mutj hel’ pe puôn dhâm prau po’ tha|m chín mu’o'i
Khasi
Khasi wey ?aar laay saaw san hnriw hnñew phra khndaaw khat
Amwi mi o la siá san thrau ynthla humphyo hunshia shipho
Palaungic
East
Palaung u: e:r u-a:i p’o:n p’an to:r pu:r ta: t’i:m kö:r
Rumai hle a2 2 p’Un2 p’an2 to2 pu2 ta2 tiim2 ky2
Danau a àn wi po:n tho tun pei-ut tsìm tsen mà-kyen
Riang håk ka:r kwai k`pwon ka:u twàl pul pretà tim s’kàll
West
Lamet mus ar lohe pun pan tal pul ta tim kel
Khamet muei la-a la-oi pôn pan tol pool toh teem kel
Plang (Kontoi) keti?2 la?al1 la?oy2 lepun1 lephon1 leh2 hereh1 seti?1 setem1
Tai-loi ka-ti là-òl là-oi pun pàn
Kem Degne la loye póne hone halè leti setine koul
Wa ra: loi bun puån lich a:lich sìtä’ sha:tim kau
Lawa teh la-a la-oei pa-erng puan laeh a-laeh staik staing kua
La (Vo) t’ie ra loi pon p’wan lie a-lie tai tim kow
Phalok (Parauk) ti a: o|i bon pün li ali di dim ko|
Son te: à oi wun pu-on lu-à à-lu-à dai dim kau
En tai loi pun pàn liâ à-li-erh pin-dai dim ko
A Mok mo a: we: pun s`en tàll n`pwi n’tà n’tum n’kyu
P’uman yi erh san p’un sa t’ao p’ua t’a t’i ch’ao
Pou Ma leun song sam si ha hok tiet piet kao sip
Hu ?amò ka?à ka?òy ?aphòn pathán
Khmuic
Khmu’ mò:j pà:r ? en há: hók cét pét káw síp
Mal meie-lae piar paeh pôn piatee piapaeh jed piapon kao maehlach
Puôc môt biêl pe pôn
Mrabri damoi baer paeh pôn terng tán kool teeh gas gul
Yumbri (neremoy) (nakobe)
East
Katuic
So muai ba: bai pon so’ng tapet tapu:n tako:n take machhit
Bru muoi bar pái poun sau’ng tapoât tapul takual takêh muoi chít
Van Kieu muôi bar pâi pôn so’n tapât tapu:l takuôl takê: macu’:t
Suei moi bar pa:y pon so’n tapat tapol tagol tagè mui jit
Na Nhyang muei bar pei puo:n chung thpak thpol thkol thke muchit
Kuy mu:j bi:a paj po:n su:ng thepha:t thepho:l thekhual thekheh ncut
Tareng moi bar puan son pat po:l ko:l khiè michet
Pacoh môi bar pe poan xông tapát tapôl tacol takih muchít
Katu mij ?be:r pe puon su:ng sepat tepal teka:l tekieh meghet
Kantu moi bar be: puan son tapat tapol tako:l takhie michet
Ong móoy báar pæ’æ púan tpat
Ngeq mo’yq baar pe puo’n so’o'ng tapu’at tapôôl takool takieh mo’chit
Khmer
Old Khmer+ muuej Biier pii puuen pram pram muuej prem Biier prem pii prem puuen tap
Khmer múuej piir bèej bùuen pram pram múuej pram py’l pram bèej pram bùuen dap
Bahnaric
South
Stieng muôi baar puôn pram prau poh phaam sên jo’mo’t
Chrau muôi var pe puôn prâm prau pôh pham su’n mât
Biat mwoj bar pee puen pram praw poh pham cin jit
Ko’ho dul bar pe poan prâm pro poh pham su’n jô’t
Sre dùl bàr pe pwan pram praw poh phàm sin jet
E Mnong ju bar pây puân prâm prâw poh pham sîn mât
C Mnong ngwây bar pe pwân prâm prâw po’h pham sîn jô’t
West
Loven muai bur^ pae puan sang tr^ao poh thaam chiin chet
Lave mui bar^ pae puan sing tr^ao poh thaam chen chit
Sapuan muuj baar pee puan seeng traw pah thaam cin jit
Cheng muuj baar pee pan seeng caw pah thaam cin cit
Suq (Sou) muuj baar pee poon seeng traw puh thaam cin cit
Nyahöñ muei ban puon so’ng trôu pah tham chin chit
Oi mui bar^ pae puan sing tr^ao pah thaam chin chit
Brao mui baar puon chhéng trau pos tham cheu chet
Krung 2 muuj baar pee puan cheeng traw pah thaam ceen cit
Lavi mooj piar pee poon syyng traw pyh thaam ciin cet
Central
Bahnar miñ bar2 pêng3 puan bo’dam to’drou to’po’h to’hngam1 to’sin po’jit
Alak moei bar pei po:n dâm tahrâu poh ham chin jit
Tampuan maoñ paeng pwan petam trao timpaoh tinghaam ñchin tsit
North
Cua mui bar pe pon po’qdam ko’drôu kapoh tho’m sin ku’l
Rengao môi’ bâr2 pê’3 pôn2 bo’dam to’drô to’po’ih to’hngam1 to’chin bo’jo’t
Jeh muih bal pei puan po’dâm to’drau to’pèh to’ham to’chin jãt
Halang moi bat pe puan dam tarau tape pham chin ajiat
Sedang moi péa pái pún petám tedróu tepah tehéam tochen moi chat
Hrê mo:yq bayq piq pun padam tadràw tapèh nahim hachìn hajàt
Didra (Todrah) muèyq bia pi pudn padabm dadrue tapê`yh nihiam tachìdn jèt
Modra muê`y bar pi pudn padâp tandru tapèyh tahim tachìt jâ`t
Pearic
Pear mo:y pa: phe:k pho:n phram kedo:ng kenu:l keti: kensa: kenga:y
Bolyu ma:i 31 mbi 55 pa:i 55 pu:n 53 me 31 pju 53 pei 55 sa:m 53 s;e53 ma:n 13
Samre mooy paar phee phoon pram kadang kanuul kentey kensaor raay
Chong moj bar pe? poon pram kadoong kaanuul kaatii kaasaal rai
South
Monic
Old Mon+ moy ?bar pi? pon msun terow dempoh dencam dencit cos
Mon mòa ?ba poe? pon peson kerao hepoh hecam hecit choh
Nyah Kur mùay baar pii? pan chuun traw mpoh ñcaam ñciit cas
Aslian
Semang
Che’ Wong nôi bêi pet pôn limeh nem
Kensiu nay duwa? tiga? ñam
Kenta’ Bong nay bye
Mos nai komam fobieh awah uibem mampoh
Jehai ney dwa? tiga? impat (lima)
Menriq nay dewa? tiga?
Bateg Deh ney tiga?
Bateg Nong nay duwa? tiga?
Mintil sa? pusing tiga?
Senoic
Semai nano na:r ni ampa:t lima: anam tudju
Temiar nál ampat lima anam tujuh lapan sambilan né-puloh
Lanoh niy na:y tiga:?
Sabum niy ciwel tiga?
Semnam ni:h ?ilwol tiga?
Jah Hut nwey nar tiga:?
Southern
Mah Meri (Besisi) muy hma hmpe? ‘mpât lîmâk nam tujoh d’lapan sambilan sapuloh
Semaq Beri muy hma hmpe? hmpon mesong pru? tempoh gênting gêntik mogênor
Semelai muy na:r hmpe? hmpon mesong pru? tempoh kitwit kantim kumai
Temoq moi duaq mpeq mpon mêsong têpêru têmpoh lapan sêmbilan mên gênau
Nicobar Is.
Nicobarese heng ne:t lu:i fe:n tanwi tafu:l sat hewhere macuhtere sam
Nancowry heang a lue fuan tanei lue tafuel ishat nfoan heanghata shaum
Shompen heng au lu:ge fu:at taing lagau aing towe: lung.i te.ya
Car héng né.t lú.y fé.n taníy tafú.l sát hévher~e macúhter~e sí.n
Munda
Mundari mid baria apia upunia monrea turuia ea írilia area gelea
Bhumij moyon baria apia upunia monea turia satta aitta nota dosta
Ho miad báriá apeá upuniá moiá turuiá aeá iriliá areá geleá
Korwa mi ba:ri-ta:ng pe:i-ta:ng cha:r pa:ñch chha sa:t a:th nau das
Birhor mia barea pea punia panch chhai sat a:t la: dâ:s
Asuri mi:at’ baria: pe:a: upnia: moyã: turia: aiya: irli:ya: area: gelea:
Santali mit bar pe pon more turui eae iral are gel
Turi miad’ baria pea punia miad’ ti miad’ ti miad’ miad’ ti baria miad’ ti pea miad’ ti punia baran ti
Kurku mi:a: ba:ri: a:pai upu:n mono turu:i: e: ila:r a:re: gel
Kharia moi baria upe ipon moloi tiburu gul t`am tomsing gol
Juang munto bato egota gandami pa:ñch chhao sa:ta a:tha nao daso
Gorum (Parenga) boj bag yag ungi monloy turgi gul-gi gal-gi gal-gab al-gab
Sora (Savara) eboy bagu yagi unji monloy tudru gulji tamji tinji gelji
Gutob (Gadaba) mui-ro: ba:r-ju: ig-ro: uun-ro: manle:i tir guligi ba:gu punza ba:gu punza bo:yi galigi
Remo (Bondo) mui ‘mba:r ingi:n o:ñ molloi t?i:ri gu: tUma:p som-tin go’
Gta’ m-mwing m-bar n-ji õ malwe tur gu tma sõting gwa

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